Forum: A Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age

This "Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age" was developed in December 2012 by the signatories below.   It was created to encourage conversation, and our goal is to have as many people involved in thinking through these issues together as possible.  Rather than a final document, it is a starting place and has been published in many places, including this one, where comments are accepted.   We have also posted a number of hackable, editable versions where contributors (including some of the signers) are working on revising it, and where it has now been retitled "Rights and Principles for Networked Learners":   http://bit.ly/learner-rights.  If you email any of the current editors (their addresses are on the document), they can invite you to be an editor too.   There's also a completely open, hackable document here (no editor permission is needed).

For more on the background of this Bill or Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age, please see Cathy's Davidson's blog.     

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Invitation:

We encourage you to participate in the conversation -- leave a comment below, or on one of the many other places it is posted (such as the links above). Most importantly, this document can’t be complete without continuous and dynamic contributions and revisions from students.  We invite students everywhere to read this beginning, to talk about it, and to add to it. Remix, rehash, and hack this Bill of Rights, adding your own thoughts and perspective.

On Twitter, please use the hashtag #learnersrights when you share your responses and adaptations.    

 
 

A Bill of Rights and Principles
for Learning in the Digital Age

 
Preamble
 
Work on this Bill of Rights & Principles began in Palo Alto, California, on December 14, 2012. We convened a group of people passionate about learning, about serving today's students, and about using every tool we could imagine to respond better to the needs of students in a global, interactive, digitally connected world.  
 
The Internet has made it possible for anyone on the planet to be a student, a teacher, and a creative collaborator at virtually no cost.  Novel technologies that can catalyze learning are bubbling up in less time than it takes to read this sentence.  Some have emerged from universities, some from the private sector, some from individuals and digital communities.  In the past year, Massive Online Open Courseware, or MOOCs, have become the darling of the moment--lauded by the media, embraced by millions--so new, so promising in possibility, and yet so ripe for exploitation.  
 
We believe that online learning represents a powerful and potentially awe-inspiring opportunity to make new forms of learning available to all students worldwide, whether young or old, learning for credit, self-improvement, employment, or just pleasure.  We believe that online courses can create "meaningful" as well as “massive" learning opportunities.  
 
We are aware of how much we don't know: that we have yet to explore the full pedagogical potential of learning online, of how it can change the ways we teach, the ways we learn, and the ways we connect.  
 
And we worry that this moment is fragile, that history frequently and painfully repeats itself. Think of television in the 1950s or even correspondence courses in the 1920s. As we begin to experiment with how novel technologies might change learning and teaching, powerful forces threaten to neuter or constrain technology, propping up outdated educational practices rather than unfolding transformative ones.
 
All too often, during such wrenching transitions, the voice of the learner gets muffled.
 
For that reason, we feel compelled to articulate the opportunities for students in this brave electronic world, to assert their needs and--we dare say--rights.  
 
We also recognize some broader hopes and aspirations for the best online learning. We include those principles as an integral addendum to the Bill of Rights below.
 
Our broad goal is to inspire an open, learner-centered dialogue around the rights, responsibilities, and possibilities for education in the globally-connected world of the present and beyond.
 
 

I.  Bill of Rights

 
We believe that our culture is increasingly one in which learning, unlearning and relearning are as fundamental to our survival and prosperity as breathing. To that end, we believe that all students have inalienable rights which transfer to new and emerging digital environments. They include:
 
The right to access
 
Everyone should have the right to learn: traditional students, non-traditional students, adults, children, and teachers, independent of age, gender, race, social status, sexual orientation, economic status, national origin, bodily ability, and environment anywhere and everywhere in the world. To ensure the right to access, learning should be affordable and available, offered in myriad formats, to students located in a specific place and students working remotely, adapting itself to people’s different lifestyles, mobility needs, and schedules.  Online learning has the potential to ensure that this right is a reality for a greater percentage of the world’s population than has ever been realizable before.
 
The right to privacy
 
Student privacy is an inalienable right regardless of whether learning takes place in a brick-and-mortar institution or online.  Students have a right to know how data collected about their participation in the online system will be used by the organization and made available to others.  The provider should offer clear explanations of the privacy implications of students' choices.  
 
The right to create public knowledge
 
Learners within a global, digital commons have the right to work, network, and contribute to knowledge in public; to share their ideas and their learning in visible and connected ways if they so choose.  Courses should encourage open participation and meaningful engagement with real audiences where possible, including peers and the broader public.
 
The right to own one’s personal data and intellectual property
 
Students also have the right to create and own intellectual property and data associated with their participation in online courses.  Online programs should encourage openness and sharing, while working to educate students about the various ways they can protect and license their data and creative work.  Any changes in terms of service should be clearly communicated by the provider, and they should never erode the original terms of privacy or the intellectual property rights to which the student agreed.  
 
The right to financial transparency
 
Students have a right to know how their participation supports the financial health of the online system in which they are participating.  They have a right to fairness, honesty, and transparent financial accounting.  This is also true of courses that are "free."  The provider should offer clear explanations of the financial implications of students' choices.
 
The right to pedagogical transparency
 
Students have the right to understand the intended outcomes--educational, vocational, even philosophical--of an online program or initiative.  If a credential or badge or certification is promised by the provider, its authenticity, meaning, and intended or historical recognition by others (such as employers or academic institutions) should be clearly established and explained.
 
The right to quality and care
 
Students have the right to care, diligence, commitment, honesty and innovation.  They are not being sold a product--nor are they the product being sold.  They are not just consumers.  Education is also about trust.  Learning--not corporate profit--is the principal purpose of all education.  
 
The right to have great teachers
 
All students need thoughtful teachers, facilitators, mentors and partners in learning, and learning environments that are attentive to their specific learning goals and needs.  While some of us favor peer learning communities, all of us recognize that, in formal educational settings, students should expect--indeed demand--that the people arranging, mentoring and facilitating their learning online be financially, intellectually and pedagogically valued and supported by institutions of higher learning and by society.  Teachers’ know-how and working conditions are students’ learning conditions.
 
The right to be teachers
 
In an online environment, teachers no longer need to be sole authority figures but instead should share responsibility with learners at almost every turn.  Students can participate and shape one another’s learning through peer interaction, new content, enhancement of learning materials and by forming virtual and real-world networks. Students have the right to engaged participation in the construction of their own learning. Students are makers, doers, thinkers, contributors, not just passive recipients of someone else’s lecture notes or methods.  They are critical contributors to their disciplines, fields, and to the larger enterprise of education.
 
 

II.  Principles

 
The following are principles to which the best online learning should aspire.  We believe the merit of specific courses, programs, or initiatives can be judged on the strength of their adherence to these principles and encourage students and professors to seek out and create digital learning environments that follow and embody them.
 
Global contribution
 
Online learning should originate from everywhere on the globe, not just from the U.S. and other technologically advantaged countries.  The best courses will be global in design and contribution, offering multiple and multinational perspectives.  They should maximize opportunities for students from different countries to collaborate with one another, to contribute local knowledge and histories and to learn one another’s methods, assumptions, values, knowledge and points of view.  
 
Value
 
The function of learning is to allow students to equip themselves to address the challenges and requirements of life and work. Online learning can serve as a vehicle for skills development, retraining, marketable expertise.  It can also support self-improvement, community engagement, intellectual challenge, or play.  All of these functions are valid. The best programs and initiatives should clearly state the potential contexts in which they offer value.
 
Flexibility
 
Students should have many options for online learning, not simply a digitized replication of the majors, minors, requirements, courses, schedules and institutional arrangements of conventional universities.  The best online learning programs will not simply mirror existing forms of university teaching but offer students a range of flexible learning opportunities that take advantage of new digital tools and pedagogies to widen these traditional horizons, thereby better addressing 21st-century learner interests, styles and lifelong learning needs.  Ideally, they will also suggest and support new forms of interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary inquiry that are independent of old gatekeepers such as academic institutions or disciplines, certification agencies, time-to-degree measurements, etc.  
 
Hybrid learning
 
Freed from time and place, online learning should nonetheless be connected back to multiple locations around the world and not tethered exclusively to the digital realm.  This can happen by building in apprenticeships, internships and real-world applications of online problem sets.  Problem sets might be rooted in real-world dilemmas or comparative historical and cultural perspectives.  (Examples might include: “Organizing Disaster Response and Relief for Hurricane Sandy” or “Women’s Rights, Rape, and Culture” or “Designing and Implementing Gun Control:  A Global Perspective.”)   
 
Persistence
 
Learning is emergent, a lifelong pursuit, not relegated to the brick walls of an institution or to a narrow window of time during life; it has no specific end point. The artificial divisions of work, play and education cease to be relevant in the 21st century.  Learning begins on a playground and continues perpetually in other playgrounds, individual and shared workspaces, communities and more.  Learning can be assessed but doesn’t aim itself exclusively toward assessment.
 
Innovation
 
Both technical and pedagogical innovation should be hallmarks of the best learning environments.  A wide variety of pedagogical approaches, learning tools, methods and practices should support students' diverse learning modes.  Online learning should be flexible, dynamic, and individualized rather than canned or standardized.  One size or approach does not fit all.
 
Formative assessment
 
Students should have the opportunity to revise and relearn until they achieve the level of mastery they desire in a subject or a skill.  Online learning programs or initiatives should strive to transform assessment into a rich, learner-oriented feedback system where students are constantly receiving information aimed at guiding their learning paths.  In pedagogical terms, this means emphasizing individualized and timely (formative) rather than end-of-learning (summative) assessment.  Similarly, instructors should use such feedback to improve their teaching practices.  Assessment is only useful insofar as it helps to foster a culture of success and enjoyment in learning.
 
Experimentation
 
Experimentation should be an acknowledged affordance and benefit of online learning. Students should be able to try a course and drop it without incurring derogatory labels such as failure (for either the student or the institution offering the course).  Through open discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of programs, the industry should develop crowd-sourced evaluative guides to help learners choose the online learning that best fits their needs.
 
Civility
 
Courses should encourage interaction and collaboration between students wherever it enhances the learning experience.  Such programs should encourage student contributions of content, perspectives, methods, reflecting their own cultural and individual perspectives.  Online learning programs or initiatives have a responsibility to share those contributions in an atmosphere of integrity and respect.  Students have the right and responsibility to promote and participate in generous, kind, constructive communication within their learning environment.
 
Play
 
Open online education should inspire the unexpected, experimentation, and questioning--in other words, encourage play. Play allows us to make new things familiar, to perfect new skills, to experiment with moves and crucially to embrace change--a key disposition for succeeding in the 21st century.  We must cultivate the imagination and the dispositions of questing, tinkering and connecting.  We must remember that the best learning, above all, imparts the gift of curiosity, the wonder of accomplishment, and the passion to know and learn even more.  
 
* * *
 
DATE:  January 25, 2013
 
SIGNATURES:  
 
John Seely Brown, University of Southern California and Deloitte Center for the Edge
 
Betsy Corcoran, Co-founder, CEO, EdSurge (edsurge.com)
 
Cathy N. Davidson, Distinguished Professor of English and Interdisciplinary Studies, Co-Director PhD Lab in Digital Knowledge, Duke University, and cofounder Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (hastac.org)
 
Petra Dierkes-Thrun, Lecturer in Comparative Literature, Stanford University; blogs about literature and digital pedagogy at literatureilluminations.org
 
Todd Edebohls, CEO of careers and education service Inside Jobs (insidejobs.com)
 
Mark J. Gierl, Professor of Educational Psychology, Canada Research Chair in Educational Measurement, and Director, Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation, University of Alberta, Canada
 
Sean Michael Morris, Educational Outreach for Hybrid Pedagogy (hybridpedagogy.com) and Part-time Faculty in the English and Digital Humanities Program at Marylhurst University in Portland, OR
 
(Jan) Philipp Schmidt, Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU, p2pu.org) and MIT Media Lab Director’s Fellow
 
Bonnie Stewart, Ph.D candidate and Sessional Lecturer, Faculty of Education, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada
 
Jesse Stommel, Director of Hybrid Pedagogy (hybridpedagogy.com) and Director of English and Digital Humanities at Marylhurst University in Portland, OR
 
Sebastian Thrun, CEO of Udacity (udacity.com), Google Fellow and Research Professor in Computer Science, Stanford University
 
Audrey Watters, Writer, Hack Education (hackeducation.com)
Sonora Torres

The Bill of Rights an Principles

Hi: I´m an English teacher at Universidad Motolinía del Pedregal in México City. And I read the bil and find it to be a very important document that must be shared throughout the world. So, i put myself to the task of translating it to spanish, because as much as I have taught English for a long time, I´m not done and I do want non-English speakers to view this and to collaborate if possible in this effort. One very important result of solely putting this Bill forth is the sense of community and the awarness of planetary participation the web presents us today. Some parts I´m sure neer re-wording, I´ve noticed also that there are various words to refer to sturents in Spanish that I´m not quite sure they all mean the same, but that is for another discussion. Anyways, I´m posting my offering wishing all the best to the proyect. Best regards Eduardo Torres / UMP

 

Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in a Digital Age: Full Document plus Back Story

 

La Carta de Derechos para el Aprendizaje en la Era Digital: El Documento Completo y su Historia

Por Cathy Davidson

Publicado en la red 23/01/2013 – 6:26am en Hastac.org

 

Traducción al Español: Eduardo Torres

 

Nuestra “Carta de Derechos y Principios para el Aprendizaje en una Era Digital” se incluye, completo, abajo y se encuentra en hastac.org como un Forum para sus comentarios, ideas, sugerencias, adiciones, y bibliografía y fuentes sobre el papel, propósito y posibilidades para la educación hoy en día en línea y cara a cara. Esperamos inaugurar una conversación profunda y reflexionada, de la forma que la Carta de Derechos sugiere, añadir “significativo” a la conversación sobre Cursos Masivos Abiertos en Línea -Massive Online Open Courseware (MOOCs). Vemos esta versión como un inicio y no un fin a la conversación que todos debemos estar teniendo entre nosotros.

(Si quiere unirse a la conversación en Twitter, el haschtag es: #learnersrights)

 

Reunidos inicialmente por Sebastian Thrun, uno de los doce que firman este documento, hemos estado trabajando en él desde el 14 de Diciembre. Si brinca a los firmantes al final de la Carta de Derechos encontrará cuán maravillosamente diverso interesante e inesperado grupo reunió Sebastian; este grupo representa muchos de los sectores que integran la educación superior, incluyendo a los estudiantes. Y de hecho es así, re-enfocando la conversación en los aprendedores- todos los diferentes tipos: formales e informales, y compañeros “aprendedores”[i] – que nos unimos y nos inpiramos a trabajar juntos, en línea y fuera de ella, por más de un mes para llevar este documento a un punto donde podríamos ofrecerlo a otros para modificar y reformar, y recombinar y editar y ampliar y renovar.

 

Esta es mi parte de la hisoria de esta Carta de Derechos y Principios. Yo invité a Sebastian y a Petra Dierkes-Thurn a la Universidad de Duke en Octubre, donde Sebastian entregó una de nuestras conferencias de Provost en nuestra serie “Information” y Petra presentó otra en el John Hope Franklin Humanities Institute, donde se encuentras las oficinas centrales administrativas de HASTAC, sobre teoría “queer” (¿extraño? ¿gay?) y Oscar Wilde, y una más para nuestro laboratorio de doctorado, PhD Lab, sobre cómo su labor de maestra y su pensamiento sobre la enseñanza cambión cuando dio su clase de humanidades en la dimensión pública y en línea de la Universidad de Stanford.

 

Ellos no habían sido invitados juntos a un campus con anterioridad y lo que era más atractivo de su visita juntos era que ellos traían temas de relevancia para todos: temas sobre el papel del maestro en la empresa educativa en línea, con Petra como una apasionada de que haya instructores de tiempo parcial y adjuntos en todos lados (ella también dio una clase en MLA (¿?) sobre esto); sobre cómo se puede enseñar humanidades de manera significativa aún en el ámbito virtual; sobre cómo temas de género, raza, sexualidad y otros contenidos políticos, cuando la enseñanza se hace pública, en términos de disponibilidad en la red, uno tiene que poner atención especial a las implicaciones del discurso público y a la identidad de nuestros estudiantes.

 

El Chronicle of Higher Educationpublicó su primera nota sobre la Carta de Derechos y Principios esta mañana y, si es un suscriptor, usted puede acceder a ella en:  http://chronicle.com/article/Bill-of-Rights-Seeks-to/136783/?cid=at&utm_source=at&utm_medium=en

 

Así bien, para todos, aquí está el documento completo –acceso abierto, por supuesto. Que dichi sea de paso es uno de nuestros derechos y principios. Pulse aquí: Please join the conversation! para participar en la conversación.

 

 

 

A Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age

Una Carta de Derechos y Principios para el aprendizaje en la Era Digital

 

Preámbulo

El trabajo en esta Carta de Derechos y Principios se inició en Palo Alto, California, en el 14 de Diciembre del 2012. Colaboramos un grupo de personas apasionadas de la enseñanza, de servirá los estudiantes de hoy, de utilizar todas y cada una de las herramientas que podamos imaginar para responder mejor a las necesidades de los estudiantes en un mundo global, interactivo y conectado digitalmente.

 

La internet ha hecho posible para cualquier persona en el planeta de manera virtualmente gratuita sea un estudiante, un maestro, y un colaborador creativo. Tecnologías novedosas que pueden catalizar el aprendizaje están surgiendo en menos tiempo del que toma leer esta oración. Algunas de ellas han surgen de las universidades, otras del sector privado, otras más de individuos y de comunidades digitales. En el año pasado, Massive Online Open Courseware, Cursos Masivos Abiertos En Línea o MOOCs por sus sigls en Inglés, se han convertido en la cosa del momento –alabados por los medios, bien recibidos por millones- tan nuevos, tan prometedores de posibilidades, y al mismo tiempo tan propensos a la explotación.

 

Creemos que el aprendizaje en línea representa una poderosa y potencialmente sobrecogedora oportunidad para hacer disponibles formas nuevas de aprendizaje para todos los estudiantes del mundo, ya sean jóvenes o viejos, estudien por créditos, auto-desarrollo, empleo o simplemente por gusto. Creemos que los cursos en línea pueden crear oportunidades “significativas”, así como “masivas”.

 

Nos queda claro de que hay mucho que desconocemos: que tenemos todavía mucho por explorar el potencial pedagógico de la enseñanza en línea y de la manera en que este cambiará la manera como enseñamos y las formas como aprendemos y la manera en que nos conectamos.

Y estamos preocupados de que este momento es frágil, que la historia se repite a sí misma frecuente y dolorosamente. Piense en la televisión en los años cincuentas o en los cursos por correspondencia en los años veintes. Así como empezamos hoy a experimentar cómo las nuevas tecnologías pueden cambiar la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, así también fuerzas poderosas amenazan con neutralizar o constreñir la tecnología, sosteniendo practicas de enseñanza antiguas en lugar de abrirse a las prácticas transformativas.

 

En muchas ocasiones, en estas difíciles transiciones, la voz del aprendedor se ensordece.

 

Es por eso que nos sentimos obligados a articular las oportunidades para los aprendedores en este mundo bravo y electrónico, para afirmar sus necesidades –nos atrevemos a decir- sus derechos.

 

Es nuestra última meta el inspirar un diálogo abierto y centrado en el que aprende sobre los derechos, responsabilidades y posibilidades para la educación en el mundo conectado globalmente del presente y del futuro.

 

I. Bill of Rights

I. Carta de Derechos

 

Creemos que nuestra cultura es cada vez más una en la que aprender, des-aprender y re-aprender son tan fundamentales para nuestra sobrevivencia y prosperidad como respirar. Con ese fin, creemos que todos los aprendedores tienen derechos indeclinables que se transfieren a los nuevos y nacientes medios digitales. Estos incluyen:

 

The right to access

El derecho al acceso

Toda persona debe tener derecho a estudiar: estudiantes tradicionales, estudiantes no tradicionales, adultos, niños, y maestros independientemente de su edad, género, raza, estado social, orientación sexual, estado económico, origen étnico, abilidad física, y medioambiente en cualquier y toda zona del mundo. Pasa asegurar el derecho de acceso, la enseñanza debe ser susceptible de pago razonable y debe ser disponible a todos, debe ser ofrecida en todo tipo de forma, desde a estudiantes localizados en una zona específica hasta aquellos en lugares más alejados, adaptándose a sí misma a las diferentes formas de vida de la gente, sus necesidades de movilidad y sus horarios. El aprendizaje en línea tiene el potencial para asegurar que este derecho sea una realidad para un mayor porcentaje de la población mundial como nunca antes había sido posible realizar.

 

 

The right to privacy

El derecho a la privacidad

La privacidad del estudiante es un derecho indeclinable sin importar si dicho aprendizaje sucede en una institución de ladrillo o virtual. Los estudiantes tienen derecho a saber cómo el sistema en línea usará los datos personales de sus participaciones y cómo esta información se hará disponible a terceros. La institución debe ofrecer explicaciones claras de acuerdo a lo que los estudiantes escojan, de cuáles serán implicaciones sobre su privacidad.

 

The right to create public knowledge

El derecho a crear conocimiento público

Los aprendedores dentro de la comunidad digital tienen derecho a trabajar, hacer redes, y a contribuir al conocimiento en público; tienen derecho a compartir sus ideas y su aprendizaje de manera visible y sobre la red si es ese su deseo. Los cursos deben fomentar participación abierta y compromiso significativo con audiencias realessiempre que sea posible, incluyendo compañeros de clase y el público en general.

 

The right to own one’s personal data and intellectual property

El derecho de propiedad sobre datos peronales y creaciones intelectualess

Los estudiantes también tienen derecho a crear y poseer propiedad sobre sus creaciones intelectuales y en general sobre la información asociada con su participación en los cursos. Los cursos en línea debe fomentar la apertura y el intercambio, al mismo tiempo en que deben promover la educación en protección y autorización legal de uso de su información y de sus creaciones intelectuales.. Cualquier cambio en términos de servicio por parte de la institución debe ser comunicado claramente (y oportunamente, n.t.). Y dichos cambios no debe erosionar los términos originales de los derechos de privacidad o de propiedad intelectual a los que el estudiante había acordado inicialmente.

 

The right to financial transparency

El derecho a la tranparencia financiera

Los estudiantes tienen derecho a saber de qué manera su participación en una institución sostiene la salud financiera de la misma. Tienen derecho a un trato financiero homogéneo, honesto y transparente. Esto es válido de cursos “gratuitos”. La institución debe presentar explicaciones claras de las implicaciones financieras según los estudiantes escojan.

 

The right to pedagogical transparency

El derecho a la tranparencia pedagógica

Los estudiantes tienen derecho a entender el resultado pretendido –sea este en términos académicos, vocacionales o hasta filósóficos- de cualquier programa en línea o iniciativa. Si la institución ofrece algún tipo de diploma, certificación o grado, su autenticidad, significado y pretención o reconociminento histórico por otros (como empleadores o instituciones académicas) debe estar establecido y explicado claramente.

 

The right to quality and care

El derecho a la calidad y al cuidado

Los estudiantes tienen derecho a recibir educación entregada con cuidado, diligencia, compromiso, honestidad e innovación. A ellos no se les está vendiendo un producto –ni son ellos el producto que se vende. No son solamente consumidores. La educación tiene que ver con la confianza. El aprendizaje –no el beneficio corporativo- es el principal propósito de toda educación.

 

The right to have great teachers

El derecho a tener grandes maestros

Todos los estudiantes merecen maestros, facilitadores, mentores y asociados en el aprendizaje que sean considerados; además deben tener ambientes de aprendizaje que resuelvan positivamente las metas mismas de aprendizaje así como sus necesidades. Mientras que algunos profesores estamos a favor de comunidades de aprendizaje de igual a igual, todos reconocemos también que en ambientes formales, los estudiantes debe esperar –en realidad demandar- que aquellos que preparan, orientan y facilitan su aprendizaje en línea sean valorados financiera, intelectual y pedagógicamente, así como que sean apoyados por las instituciones de educación superior y por la sociedad. Las condiciones del conocimiento adquirido y de trabajo de los profesores son las condiciones de aprendizaje de los estudiantes.

 

The right to be teachers

El derecho a ser maestros

 

Los maestros en un medioambiente en línea no necesitan ser ya la última figura de autoridad. En lugar de eso, ellos comparten la responsabilidad del aprendizaje en cada paso. Los estudiantes pueden participar y dar forma al aprendizaje de sus comunes a través de interacción entre ellos, a través de mejoras en el contenido de los materiales de enseñanza y a través de formar redes reales y virtuales con sus compañeros y maestros. Los estudiantes tienen el derecho de participar comprometidamente en la construcción de su propio aprendizaje. Los estudiantes son creadores, hacedores, pensadores, contribuyentes, no sólo receptores de los planes de clase o métodos de otros. Son contribuyentes críticos de sus disciplinas, áreas de estudio y de la amplia empresa que es la educación.

 

II.  Principles

II. Los Principios

 

Los siguientes son los principios a los que el mejor aprendizaje en línea debe aspirar. Creemos que el mérito de cursos específicos, programas o iniciativas puede juzgarse en base a la fuerza de su adherencia a estos principios y animamos a los estudiantes y a los profesores a buscar y a crear ambientes digitales de aprendizaje que los sigan y los encarnen.

 

Global contribution

Contribución global

El aprendizaje en línea debe originarse desde todos los puntos del planeta no sólo los Estados Unidos y otros países tecnológicamente avanzados. Los mejores cursos[ii] deben ser diseñados por diseño y pos su contribución, deben ofrecer perspectivas múltiples y multinacionales. Deben maximizar las oportunidades de colaboración de estudiantes de diferentes países entre ellos, deben contribuir al conocimiento e historia local y al aprendizaje de los métodos, suposiciones, valores, conocimiento y puntos de vista de unos y otros.

 

Value

Valor

La función del aprendizaje es permitir[iii] que los estudiantes se equipen a sí mismos para enfrentar los retos y requisitos de la vida y el trabajo. El aprendizaje en línea puede servir como vehículo para el desarrollo de habilidades, el re-entrenamiento, el aprendizaje de capacidades (especialidades? Oficios?) que se puedan ofrecer al mercado en general así como al de trabajo. También debe promover el auto-desarrollo, el compromiso comunitario, el reto intelectual y la diversión. Todas estas son funciones válidas. Los mejores programas e iniciativas deben declarar con claridad los potenciales contextos en los que ofrecen valor.

 

Flexibility

Flexibilidad

Los estudiantes deben tener opciones variadas para el aprendizaje en línea no solamente una copia digitalizada de las carreras y sus especialidades, de sus cursos y horarios, ni de los acuerdos institucionales de las universidades convencionales. Los mejores programas de aprendizaje en línea no serán espejo de las formas universitarias establecidas pero ofrecerán al estudiante una amplia gama de oportunidades educacionales flexibles que tomarán ventaja de las nuevas herramientas digitales y además utilizarán pedagogías que amplíen los horizontes tradicionales de tal forma que se empaten a las necesidades del aprendedor del siglo XXI, de sus intereses, estilos y necesidades de aprendizaje a lo largo de toda su vida. Idealmente, estos programas promoverán y apoyarán nuevas formas de investigación interdisciplinaria y entre las diferentes disciplinas que sean independientes de los antiguos órdenes académicos como instituciones académicas, agencias de certificación o mediciones de tiempo para obtener grado, etc.

 

Hybrid learning

Aprendizaje híbrido

Liberado de los requisitos de tiempo y espacio, el aprendizaje en línea debe necesariamente estar conectado a los diferentes centros alrededor del mundo y no ser exclusivamente virtual. Esto se puede lograr construyendo espacios donde existan los aprendices, los que hacen servicio social o comunitario relacionado a sus estudios, y creando aplicaciones del mundo real a conjuntos de problemas en línea. Los conjuntos o series de problemas para el estudiante en línea pueden estar enraizados a los dilemas o perspectivas históricas o culturales del mundo real. (Ejemplos de esto podrían incluir: Organización para la respuesta y el alivio al desastre ocasionado por el huracán Sandy”, o “La cultura y los derechos de las mujeres en temas de violación” o “Diseño e implementación de control de armas: una perspectiva global”.)

 

Persistence

Persistencia

El aprendizaje es una actividad que surge, una búsqueda a lo largo de la vida, no es algo que se relega a una institución o a una pequeña ventana de tiempo durante la vida, no tiene un punto final específico. Las divisiones artificiales de trabajo, diversión y educación han dejado de ser relevantes en el siglo XXI. El aprender inicia en el solar de juegos y continúa de manera perpetua en otros solares, lugares de trabajo compartidos o individuales, comunidades y más. El aprendizaje puede ser evaluado pero no se plantea a sí mismo exclusivamente hacia la evaluación.

 

Innovation

Innovación

Los distintivos de los mejores ambientes de aprendizaje deben ser la innovación técnica y la innovación pedagógica. Una amplia variedad de estrategias pedagógicas, herramientas de aprendizaje, métodos y prácticas deben apoyar los diversos modos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes. El aprendizaje en línea debe ser flexible, dinámico e individualizado no encajonado o estandarizado. Una talla no le queda a todos.

 

Formative assessment

Evaluación formativa

Los estudiantes deben tener la oportunidad de revisar y reaprender hasta que alcancen el nivel de maestría que desean en una materia o habilidad dada. Los programas o las iniciativa en línea deben esforzarse en transformar la evaluación en un sistema de retroalimentación enriquecido y orientado en el aprendedor, donde los aprendedores están constantemente recibiendo información con el propósito de guiarlos en sus rutas aprendizaje. En términos pedagógicos, esto significa enfatizar la evaluación individualizada y oportuna (formativa) en lugar de aquella de final de curso que resulta sumatoria, no aditiva. De manera similar, los instructores deben utilizar la retroalimentación para mejorar sus prácticas educativas. Las evaluaciones son útiles siempre y cuando ayuden a promover una cultura de éxito y de gozo en el aprendizaje.

 

Experimentation

Experimentación

 

La experimentación debe ser un beneficio y una opción reconocida (¿an acknowledged affordance and benefit?) del aprendizaje en línea. Los estudiantes deben tener la opción de probar y dejar un curso sin incurrir en faltas demeritorias como ser reprobado (ya que cualquiera la institución que ofrece el curso o elestudiante que lo deja pueden ser considerados así). A través de la discusión abierta de las fortalezas y debilidades de los programas, la industria podría desarrollar guías para evaluar de origen público que podrían ayudar a los estudiantes a escoger aprendizaje en línea que llene mejor sus necesidades.

 

Civility

Civilidad

Los cursos deben fomentar interacción y colaboración entre los estudiantes de todas partes siempre y cuando esto acentúe la experiencia del aprendizaje. Estos programas deben fomentar las contribuciones de los estudiantes en el contenido, perspectiva, método, deben reflejar sus propias perspectivas culturales e individuales. Los programas y las iniciativas en línea tienen la responsabilidad compartir esas contribuciones en una atmósfera de integridad y respeto. Los estudiantes tienen el derecho y la responsabilidad de promover y participar en la comunicación generosa, amable y constructiva dentro del ambiente de aprendizaje.

 

Play

Diversión

La educación abierta en línea debe inspirar lo inesperado, la experimentación y debe ser inquisitiva, en otras palabras debe fomentar la diversión. El juego nos permite familiarizarnos con las cosas nuevas, nos permite perfeccionar nuestra habilidades, nos deja experimentar diferentes posibilidades, y de manera notable, nos permite aceptar el cambio, una disposición esencial para el éxito en el siglo XXI. Debemos cultivar la imaginación y la disposición para preguntar, armar y desarmar, y aprender a hacer conexiones. Debemos recordar que el mejor aprendizaje, sobre todo, es aquél que imprime el don de la curiosidad, el milagro del logro alcanzado, y la pasión de aprender y conocer todavía más.

* * *

 

DATE:  January 25, 2013

 

SIGNATURES:  

 

John Seely Brown, University of Southern California and Deloitte Center for the Edge

Betsy Corcoran, Co-founder, CEO, EdSurge (edsurge.com)

Cathy N. Davidson, Distinguished Professor of English and Interdisciplinary Studies, Co-Director PhD Lab in Digital Knowledge, Duke University, and cofounder Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (hastac.org)

Petra Dierkes-Thrun, Lecturer in Comparative Literature, Stanford University; blogs about literature and digital pedagogy at literatureilluminations.org

Todd Edebohls, CEO of careers and education service Inside Jobs (insidejobs.com)

Mark J. Gierl, Professor of Educational Psychology, Canada Research Chair in Educational Measurement, and Director, Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation, University of Alberta, Canada

Sean Michael Morris, Educational Outreach for Hybrid Pedagogy (hybridpedagogy.com) and Part-time Faculty in the English and Digital Humanities Program at Marylhurst University in Portland, OR

(Jan) Philipp Schmidt, Peer 2 Peer University (P2PU, p2pu.org) and MIT Media Lab Director’s Fellow

Bonnie Stewart, Ph.D candidate and Sessional Lecturer, Faculty of Education, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada

Jesse Stommel, Director of Hybrid Pedagogy (hybridpedagogy.com) and Director of English and Digital Humanities at Marylhurst University in Portland, OR

Sebastian Thrun, CEO of Udacity (udacity.com), Google Fellow and Research Professor in Computer Science, Stanford University

Audrey Watters, Writer, Hack Education (hackeducation.com)

 

* * *

 

Invitation:

 

To join the discussion, visit one of the many platforms where this Bill of Rights and Principles is being published and blogged about (each of us, and each of the platforms, will likely create a different sort of engagement).  We invite further discussion, hacking, and forking of this document.  On Twitter, please use the hashtag #learnersrights when you share your versions and responses.  Finally, and most importantly, this document can’t be complete (can never be complete) without continuous and dynamic contributions and revising by students.  We invite students everywhere to read this beginning, to talk about it, to add to it.  

 

Additional resources: We have not included reading resources here but invite you to add the ones most meaningful to you in the public, crowd-sourced version of the Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age  [WE WILL INSERT OUR LINK HERE--STILL BEING DETERMINED].  Collective contribution is the principle we espouse in this document.  We look forward to your participation.

 



[i] La palabra aprendedor, significando, el que aprende, no es de uso común en el Español, que actualmente se refiere a aquél que aprende, que genera su aprendizaje al actuar para aprender, no al estudiante que espera a recibir el conocimiento.

[ii] Creo que esto se refiere a los cursos de excelencia en el sentido de la excelencia de las escuelas tipo chárter de los Estados Unidos, debería traducirse así. N.T.

[iii] Más que permitir yo diría empoderar para avanzar. N.T.

Cathy Davidson

Translated into Spanish: Thank you!

I do not know Spanish so have no authority except good faith upon which to thank you, Professor Torres.   May we put your Spanish translation on the Google Doc with the evolving draft so that others can edit and comment in Spanish?  

patrick.mooney

I'd like to see ...

... a commitment encoded in the bill of rights, in some way, to provide access using a broad variety of hardware and software configurations. Many online learning platforms with which I've worked have very stringent requirements about how the computer accessing the service must be configured ("we only support browsers X, Y, and Z under Windows Vista or MacOS 10.5 or later"). This disenfranchises a large number of people, primarily the poor, who may not have their own computers, or may not be able to afford to upgrade to a newer operating system, or may be trying to use other non-traditional access paths. If someone's only way to access an online course is to get on the Internet at the local library, they probably can't install an updated browser. If a platform only supports users running Windows or MacOS, then it's cut out an opportunity for people who are using some of the more exciting recent technologico-economic innovations (the $35 Raspberry Pi is designed to operate decently under minimalist Linux distributions but can't cough up the processing power to run the bloatware that gets loaded by default on a new Windows 7 installation -- and a copy of Windows costs several times as much as the computer itself, which is not an insubstantial consideration outside of first-world countries). Putting lecture videos online after converting them to a Flash-based format means that they're not viewable by people on their iPhones or iPads. And so forth.

Restricting the manner in which students can access educational content restricts some people from being students. Contrapositively, restricting access paths for educators to provide content restricts their opportunities to educate effectively. Both decisions are often justified, from the software builder's (or tech-support provider's) point of view, in terms of limited financial means: We can't afford to test this thing that we built under every imaginable piece of hardware and software, or to help you fix it when it breaks on a SPARC workstation running the Haiku OS. This is perhaps a fair claim in some circumstances, but should be thought out differently than it often is: I think there's often a knee-jerk assumption that we need to decide up front which (few) access paths are supported, and then decide how to get as much cool stuff to the lucky few as possible. From my point of view, if I'm designing a set of online notes for students, I'd rather have them encoded in straight HTML so that they can be displayed on the greatest possible variety of devices, rather than having nifty whizbang navigational graphics that require a device that supports Java or Flash or what have you. Currently, though, presentation is often prioritized over allowing for multiple access paths. This, from my point of view, is backwards: We should think about developing in terms of open standards as often as possible, building tools that will work with as many platforms as possible, and only restrict access when there's a strong pedagogical need to do so, or a real technical barrier. After all, why SHOULDN'T someone be able to watch a lecture on his/her iPhone? This is in line with many other goals outlined in the bill of rights.

All that being said, I'd like to see something along the lines of these principles adopted:

* Learning platforms should be accessible by as many paths as can be made to legitimately support the overall pedagogical mission of the course. Blackboard-style content delivery systems, for instance, should require "a standards-compliant browser" (or some similar language) rather than a limited set of specific versions of specific browsers running under specific approved versions of specific operating systems.

* Content should be available in formats that can be read for free. No one should have to buy a copy of a specific word processor to read someone's lecture notes. No one should have to buy a specific graphics package in order to see a diagram that's part of course content. No one should have to shell out for expensive video software (or a fast computer) to watch a lecture One way to do this is to provide content in a format that anyone with a web browser can access (HTML with embedded graphics served via HTTP, for instance); another is to provide content in a variety of formats, at least one of which is an open format that can be read by one or more (preferably more) free software packages.

* Thought should be given, when encoding content, to what kinds of requirements its containers impose. Creating audio/visual files in formats that places great demands on the decoding hardware should be avoided unless there really is no alternative that addresses the pedagogical needs of the course (which is very rare).

There's probably a lot more that could be said on the topic, but I'd just like to get the conversation started.

Neal Palmquist

First impression

I've just made a quick scan of this and I believe I am welcome to make a comment and observations about this.

At first I wonder what the purpose of this would be in America. For example, the right to great teachers when compared to the real second amendment in the Bill of Rights confuses me because the government function is not to arm every citizen. So I'm coming from a curiousity to understand the real Bill of Rights and see this as something very strange. I wonder if the federal government must be a tyrant and is keeping students from having great teachers, replacing the teachers with ones that are intentionally not so great. Of course not, so what is the purpose?

 

In the Federalist Papers, Alexander Hamilton argued against the Bill of Rights by more or less saying, "Why state that which the federal government cannot do when no such powers to do so have ever been given to it in the first place?" Hamilton and many others agreed that the rights of citizens are the domain of the states and Washington D.C would never be the guardian of those rights because the Constitution never gives the federal government any teeth to impose tyranny. The principle of limited and defined powers prevents tyranny.

 

Yet today we find ourselves in an akward position on the other side of Hamilton's disregarded objections. As soon as any of the constitutional amendments known as the Bill of Rights is repealed, then all rights fall because it would be a surrender of the sovereignty and power of the states. Repealing simply one of the Bill of Rights amendments is a concession that the states are no longer the guardian of rights. The separation of powers as the founders believed is gone and the federal government grows the teeth it needs for tyranny.

I'm not sure what the mechanics for implementation of your bill of rights will be. I think it is a very strange bird because I need examples of where my government in America has violated those rights and then I can understand the need for it. Bill of Rights are for fighting the tyranny of a centralized government power. When I see your work standing alone and in isolation like this, I don't get it. I also think it just likes to call itself a Bill of Rights with a somewhat disrespectful air of unappreciation for the reall Bill of Rights in America.

Also, I think every segmentable part of it should have it's own comment section.

Palmquist

Another afterthought

I wanted to return and make another point but something is wrong with my newly created account. I hope that my persistance will not be percieved as taunting or a violation of the terms and conditions I agreed to. I am the same person who wrote the first impression. I want to add these thoughts and then I will not return without an email sent to me from the editor or webmaster giving me a welcome to do so.

 

As a parent, I am the guardian of the rights of my children and nobody else is. I'd like to warn the authors that this bill of rights can be seen as an uninvited imposition. It is as if outside influences feel self justified to push a bill of rights by using the common examples, like the fact that my children might show up to math class equipped with more than a chalk tablet, abacus and slide rule. A calculator seems to instigate the tipping point in that case. Technology was introduced and after that then the rights of my children are no longer my domain as the child's parent.

Parents may reasonably have this viewpoint and perceive that tyranny is not the cause of this bill of rights, but rather the outcome of it.

Thank you for allowing me to say this in your forum.

Sonora Torres

The Bill of Rights

The translation I offered of the Bill of Rights to Spanish is a work in progress, subject to any and all changes necessary, as the original version is wildly read, discussed, perfected, etc. It is a firts draft, since, as with any translation, some sentences that might have been translated literaly, could have a slight or significant diferent meaning or intension and this could be resolved as discussion rolls in. So it is most definetively subject to correction, by all means!

Tomas Oliverius

"Yes" from the country that was once behind the Iron Curtain

I live in a country with the traditional concept of public education, which had been distorted by the totalitarian regime for a long time. There was the only official philosophy in Eastern Europe, the only "correct" interpretation (in fact misinterpretaion) of history and the only "scientific" world view. Education was controlled by the only permitted political party ... I am happy that this time has gone. Having this experience, I welcome the Bill of Rights and Principles for Learning in the Digital Age, knowing that it is an ideal, that cannot be enforced or filled in an absolute sense, but it can inspire and motivate us by its unquestionable moral authority. It is a great challenge for a free and democratic society and a strong encouragement to those who still live under the tyrrany of a totalitarian political system. Online learning based on such a solid foundation can be a super chance for people around the world.

Dimitri Kokkonis

Ideals and reality not to be confused

I loved this well balanced text; yet as a classicist by formation I know that ideals:

- are never to be confused with living reality

- are of some importance when they are not mandated but freely shared

- are of great value when a critical mass of free people mean to engage themselves in steadily shaping their everyday action in accordance to these ideals

All the best to all of you, colleagues

Dimitri Kokkonis

Would a translation be welcome?

I read carefully the above text, and I can't agree more with its writers; I would like to translate this "manifesto" into Greek, as I appreciated the way to share and further develop ideas in the emerging digital communities. Hopefully, such a translation would contribute to an emerging public dialog on rights within digital Greek speaking communities. If I rightly understand the spirit of HSTAC, this is within its scope.